(PDF) Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Biology and Management in Wheat
Chen, R. J. Whitworth, G. Cramer, B. P. McCornack, P. E. Sloderbeck, A. L. Giles, and T. A. Royer. 2014. Impact of temperature on Hessian (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) resistance in selected wheat cultivars in the Great Plains region. Chen, R. J. Whitworth, G. Cramer, B. P. McCornack, P. E.
Which one is the Hessian shoot fly resistant variety in wheat?
Purdue University/USDA, ARS released INW9811, a soft winter wheat variety with Hessian fly resistance associated with the H13 gene, in 1998. INW9811 is resistant to Hessian fly populations from throughout the mid-west and mid-south soft winter wheat growing area.
What plants do Hessian flies form galls in?
Wheat, barley, and rye are all members of the Triticeae family of cereal crops, but wheat is the best host for population growth (Harris et al. 2001, Chen et al. 2009a). In choice tests, the Hessian fly prefers wheat, followed by rye, and then barley (Harris et al. 2001).
What are the pest for wheat?
Wheat is the only cereal that is seriously affected by the Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV), which causes stunted growth and lower seed production in wheat plants. WSMV is spread by the wheat curl mite and leaf rubbing. Mites can be blown from field to field by the wind and overwinter on winter wheat.
What is Hessian fly free date?
These dates are estimates of when the majority of Hessian fly adults will die and lay eggs in wheat fields, which, if planted too early, can stunt or kill the wheat plants.
What does Hessian fly do to wheat?
If 15 to 20% of stems are infested with Hessian fly in the spring, yield losses can be expected. Hessian fly reduces winter wheat forage yield production but has little effect on wheat forage quality.
Where did the Hessian fly come from?
Hessian flies were first discovered on Long Island, New York, around 1779, and are thought to have originated in the southern Caucasus region of Russia or Asia. They were accidentally introduced to North America when Hessian troops imported straw bedding during the American Revolutionary War.
Where do Hessian flies live?
The larval stage of the Hessian fly survives hot summers and cold winters in a protective puparium (Fig. 2) on stubble, volunteer wheat, early-planted wheat, and other host grasses. Puparia are often referred to as the pest’s “flaxseed” stage because they resemble flax seed.
How did US agricultural policy reduce Hessian fly impacts on winter wheat?
In most wheat-producing states, the use of resistant varieties, in combination with delayed planting dates and the destruction of volunteer wheat, has greatly reduced Hessian fly as a major concern.
Is a grain weevil a pest?
Grain weevils are the most common grain pests, infesting undamaged grain and hard cereal products like macaroni and spaghetti. Both adults and larvae feed on the grain, causing holes and contamination with their excretions.
How do I keep bugs off my wheat?
Turmeric powder is another good alternative for protecting grains from insects and pests. Before storing grains and seeds in containers or jute bags, they are mixed with turmeric powder, which provides protection for up to 6-8 months and is equally safe for consumption.
What are a few wheat diseases?
- Barley Yellow Dwarf.
- Black Chaff.
- Crown and Root Rot.
- Fusarium Head Blight (Scab)
- Leaf Rust.
- Tan Spot.
- Wheat Soil-borne Mosaic.
- Wheat Streak Mosaic.
What is the fly safe date?
The standard fly-free date in northern Michigan is the first week of September, around mid-September in mid-state areas, and the third or fourth week of September in southern Michigan.
What is fly free date?
The Fly Free Date is the date when Hessian fly adults have migrated out of the area and will no longer infest wheat, as determined by ten years of research conducted in the 1920s and 1930s.