Wheat Growth Stages and Associated Management
The Feekes and Zadoks scales can be used to identify wheat growth stages, but they cannot be determined solely by looking at the crop’s height. A careful examination of the developing crop is required to tell growth stages apart.
Feekes 1.0: Emergence
The number of leaves present on the first shoot (main stem) can be expressed as a decimal. Stand establishment is the most important factor in achieving high yields; late-planted wheat has less time to tiller and should be seeded at a higher rate.
Feekes 2.0: Beginning of Tillering (usually in fall)
To promote tillering, a producer may apply 20 to 30 pounds of starter nitrogen per acre. Adequate phosphorus and a soil pH above 6.0 are required for good root and tiller development. Excess N applied at this time results in lush, vegetative growth, making the crop more susceptible to winterkill.
Feekes 3.0: Tillers Formed (late fall or early spring)
Winter wheat can be tillered for several weeks before dormancy, and most of the tillers that contribute to grain yield are completed at this time. Spring N should not be applied before green-up, which occurs when new spring growth has covered dead tissue.
Feekes 4.0: Beginning of Erect Growth (March-April)
Winter wheats, which may have a prostrate growth habit in earlier stages, begin to grow erect at Feekes 3.0, with most tillers formed and secondary root systems developing.
Feekes 5.0: Leaf Sheaths Strongly Erect (early- to mid-April)
Vernalization, or a period of cool weather, is required for further development of the winter wheat plant beyond Feekes 4, and this is an ideal stage of growth for the spring topdress N application. Weed control decisions should be made before or during Feekes 5.0.
Feekes 6.0: First Node Visible (mid-late April)
The first node is swollen and appears above the soil surface at Feekes 6.0, and the head or spike, which is being pushed upwards from the boot, is fully differentiated and contains future spikelets and florets, is above this node.
Feekes 7.0: Second Node Becomes Visible (late April-early May)
When the flag leaf is visible but still rolled up, wheat has reached Feekes growth stage 8, which is marked by rapid head expansion and the presence of a second detectable node. Look for two nodesu2014one should be between 1.5 and 3 inches from the stem’s base.
Feekes 8.0: Flag Leaf Visible, but Still Rolled Up (late April-early May)
The flag leaf accounts for about 75% of the effective leaf area that contributes to grain fill, and application of foliar fungicides at Feekes Stages 8 through 10 yields the best results. Additional N may exacerbate the severity of some foliar diseases, particularly rusts.
Feekes 9.0: Ligule of Flag Leaf Visible (early May)
Stage 9.0 begins when the flag leaf has fully emerged from the whorl and the ligule is visible; leaves are then referred to as F-1, F-2, and F-3. Army worms can severely reduce yield potential once flag leaves have emerged.
Feekes 10.0: Boot Stage (mid-May)
The boot stage is a critical stage in the development of the leaf stem and for making fungicide applications for foliar disease management, as the leaf’s head is fully developed and visible in the swollen section of the sheath below the flag leaf.
Feekes 10.1-10.5: Heading (mid- to late-May)
Extrusion of anthers from florets in the center of the spike marks the start of flowering in wheat, while heading marks the emergence of the wheat head from the leaf sheath of the flag leaf.
Feekes 10.5.1-10.5.3: Flowering (mid-May to early-June)
10.5.1 Beginning flowering. This growth stage is often marked by the extrusion of anthers from florets in the center of the spike (Figure 8), which is why it is also known as u201canthesis.u201d However, in Ohio, flowering may occur without anthers being extruded or with anther extrusion occurring after flowering, depending on the weather and other factors.
Feekes 10.5.4-11.4: Ripening and Maturation
10.5.4 Kernels watery ripe, clear fluid can be squeezed from the developing kernel. 11.1 Milky ripe, milk-like fluid can be squeezed out of the kernels when crushed. 11.2 Mealy ripe, material squeezed out of the kernel has a doughy consistency. 11.3 Kernel hard, but dividable with thumbnail (late June).
What is flowering stage in wheat?
After heading, the flowering stage (6), also known as anthesis, begins, and it is during this stage that the anthers release their pollen.
Where does flowering begin on a wheat spike?
The head is pushed out of the flag leaf sheath as the stem lengthens, a stage known as “heading.” Within a few days of heading, flowering (pollination) begins in the head, beginning with the florets in the central spikelets.
Does wheat turn into flower?
Wheat is a tall annual that grows to a height of four feet (1.2 meters). Its leaves, which are similar to those of other grasses, appear early and are followed by slender stalks that produce flowers, which produce grains or kernels when fertilized.
What are the stages of growing wheat?
Wheat growth can be divided into several stages: germination/emergence, tillering, stem elongation, boot, heading/flowering, and grain-fill/ripening. Several different systems have been developed to identify wheat growth stages; the Feekes scale and the Zadoks scale are the two most popular.
Which method of sowing is best suited to wheat?
There are four ways to sow wheat:
- Broadcasting: Seeds are broadcast and then worked in by harrowing to cover them.
- Behind Local Plough: This method is used by the majority of farmers.
- Drilling: Seed is sown by seed drill or ferti-seed drill in this method.
What make plants grow faster?
The most basic factors for making a plant grow faster and bigger are water, air, light, soil nutrients, and the proper temperature for the right plants. Liquid fertilizers come in granular and powdered form.
- Carbonated water, which contains carbon dioxide bubbles, stimulates plant growth.
- Fish emulsion.
- Green tea.
How long does it take for wheat to mature?
Warm-season wheat can mature in as little as 30 days, while overwintered wheat can take up to nine months to mature. Once the grains have turned brown, cut the stalks to just above the ground.
How long does it take for wheat to head out?
Winter Wheat takes about seven to eight months to mature, and it makes a lovely golden contrast in spring gardens.
How do you increase tillering in wheat?
Tillering is influenced by a number of factors, including variety, light, temperature, soil humidity (irrigation), spacing, and fertilization practices, the most important of which is light. Adequate lighting at the base of the plant during this period results in active basal vegetative buds.
What happens to wheat if it is not harvested?
Wheat harvesting is postponed, putting the crop at risk of disease, lodging, sprouting, and harvest loss.
What is the fruit of wheat?
The caryopsis, also known as a grain, is the fruit of the Poaceae (or Gramineae) family, which includes wheat, rice, and corn.