How Late Can You Seed Winter Wheat and Still Produce Grain?
The Nebraska Wheat Board reported declining winter wheat conditions in western and southwestern Nebraska, with wind erosion affecting 30-40% of the wheat in some areas in the northern Panhandle, and producers expecting 25-35% winterkill in these areas without moisture.
KSU Wheat Seeding Date Study
Kansas State University researchers conducted a seven-year study (1985-1991) at Garden City, Kansas, where they seeded winter wheat every month from October 1 to April 1. They used a seeding rate of 80 lb/acre of TAM 107.
Grain yields decreased as planting was delayed after October 1, the optimum planting date for the area (Table 1). Wheat planted on all dates through March 1 headed and produced grain yields each year. Wheat planted on April 1 did not receive enough cold winter weather to vernalize and slowed down.
The grain-filling period was progressively shortened and delayed into warmer weather with later planting dates, with each monthly planting delay hastening this period by an average of 1.7 days. The average daily temperature during this grain-filling period increased by an average of 1.5u00b0F per monthly planting delay, becoming progressively less favorable for plant productivity.
- Although wheat yields decline with planting delays%2C considerable flexibility is available for planting winter wheat.%3BAlthough wheat yields decline with planting delays%2C considerable flexibility is available for planting winter wheat.%3BOctober 1 %3D 100%25November 1 %3D 77%DEcember 1 %3D 59%25January 1 %3D 57%FEbruary 1 %3D 41%25%2C and%3BMarch 1 %3D 16%25.
|Table 1. Wheat responses to delayed planting dates 1985-1991 at Garden City, Kansas as reported in Kansas State University study.|
Winter wheat requires vernalization, a process where plants exposed to cold temperatures experience physiological changes. With wheat this means the plants will not flower until they have been exposed to cold temperatures. Not all plants have a vernalization requirement, and the degree of vernalization required can vary within a species.
Vernalization days (VD) are a measure of cold temperature, similar to how growing degree days (GDD) are a measure of warm temperatures. Despite popular belief, the best vernalization temperatures for winter wheat are 40u00b0F u2013 50u00b0F, not colder temperatures, because vernalization is a biological process that requires plants to be biologically active u2014 not frozen.
What is the best time to plant winter wheat?
Winter wheat is seeded in a shallow seedbed in late August or early September to allow the plant access to enough water to germinate quickly and grow for four to five weeks.
How late can I plant winter wheat?
Growers must pay close attention to the temperature and weather forecast to determine when it is too late to plant winter wheat.
When would you plant and harvest winter wheat?
Winter wheat is planted in the fall and harvested in the summer; it requires a strong root system and the start of shoots before the cold weather arrives. Spring wheat is planted as soon as possible in the spring and harvested in the late summer.
Can you plant winter wheat in January?
Wheat planted on any date from October 1 to January 1 yielded 50%-100% of full yields, and wheat planted on any date from March 1 to March 1 yielded grain yields each year.
Does winter wheat come back every year?
Winter wheat is typically planted in the Northern Hemisphere from September to November and harvested in the summer or early autumn the following year; however, facultative varieties can be grown as either winter or spring wheat depending on sowing time.
How deep do you plant winter wheat?
Seed winter wheat at a 1- to 1.5-inch soil depth to facilitate rapid emergence; seeding deeper than an inch deep puts the crowns at risk of winter kill, while seeding shallower than an inch deep delays emergence.
Will winter wheat reseed itself?
Alternatively, it will eventually seed itself out, though in my experience with food plots, birds and turkeys will eat 99.367% of the seed before it reaches the ground.
Do Whitetails like winter wheat?
Winter wheat is an excellent cool-season forage for white-tailed deer because it contains more than 20% crude protein and contains less than 25% acid detergent fiber, making it highly digestible.
Can I plant wheat in winter?
When growing winter wheat at home, broadcast seeds over a prepared seedbed, keep the bed moist until germination, and remove competitive weeds between mid-September and early-December.
Does wheat grow back every year?
Perennial wheat is generally a weak perennial, as current lines of the crop only regrow two times; researchers are working on developing stronger perennials that will regrow multiple times. Perennial wheat is planted at the same time as annual wheat, and the plants grow similarly at first.
What is the growing season for wheat?
Long-season (winter) wheat varieties are sown first in midu2013late April through midu2013May (south-western and north-western Victoria), followed by midseason wheat varieties in Mayu2013June.
Is winter wheat an annual or perennial?
Plant breeders are currently developing perennial wheat, whereas the commonly grown winter wheat is an annual crop.
Is it illegal to grow wheat at home?
Commercial wheat operations, which rely heavily on commercial pesticides and fertilizers for production, are often very traumatic to otherwise fertile land, making it illegal to grow wheat at home.
What happens if you plant winter wheat in the spring?
Winter wheat can be planted in the spring as a weed-suppressing companion crop or early forage, but you lose the benefit of fall nutrient scavenging. Reasons for spring planting include winter kill or spotty overwintering, or simply because you didn’t have time to fall-seed it.
What’s the difference between spring and winter wheat?
The difference between spring wheat and winter wheat is when the seeds are planted; spring wheat is planted in the spring and harvested in the fall, whereas harder winter wheat has a higher protein content and is used to make pasta and bread.