See Atta flour for the very fine stone-milled whole wheat flour from the Indian subcontinent. Hard flour, also known as bread flour, contains 12% to 14% gluten, whereas soft flour contains less gluten and has a finer, crumblier texture.
The milling process begins with tempered grain, which is grain that has had moisture added to it prior to milling. This softens the starchy “endosperm” portion of the wheat kernel, which will be separated from the fine particles that make up white flour.
Whole grain flour contains the entire grain, including the bran, germ, and endosperm, but not the chaff. Whole wheat flour in Canada may have up to 5% of the grain removed, with the majority of the germ removed to prevent rancidity.
Indian wheat flours
Wheat powder/flour u2013 ‘whole grain’ (mixture of germ, endosperm, and bran); bleached or very white flour. Atta flour u2013 mixture of endosperm, bran, and germ; bleached or very white flour. Maida flour – highly white flour, similar to American bleached flour. Sooji/rava u2013 coarse-ground endosperm, with more protein.
Tang flour, also known as wheat starch, is a type of wheat flour used primarily in Chinese cuisine for the outer layer of dumplings and buns; it is also known as bu1ed9t lu1ecdc trong in Vietnamese cuisine.
Bread flour, also known as strong flour, is always made from hard wheat, usually hard spring wheat. Graham flour is the foundation of true graham crackers. Instant flour is pregelatinized (precooked) for easier incorporation in gravies and sauces. Bleached flour is white flour treated with flour bleaching agents to give it more gluten-free properties.
Spelt flour is made from the spelt wheat variety, which is less commonly used in modern cooking than other wheat varieties, but is still used for specialty baking and can be found in bakeries and markets around the world, including in the United States.
The W index is a strength indicator that considers both the toughness and elasticity of the gluten in the flour. A higher W index flour will require a longer rising time for leavened bread products, as the gluten traps CO2 produced during the fermentation process.
Zeleny sedimentation value
The Zeleny sedimentation value is a measurement of how much flour sediments in a lactic acid solution over a set period of time; it is used to predict a cultivar’s baking characteristics and can be estimated using EM irradiation and spectral anaylsis.
National Flour, an 85% extraction flour that contained more whole wheat grain than refined flour, was promoted by the British government as a healthy alternative to importing wheat during World War II, but it was discontinued in 1956 against the Medical Research Council’s recommendations.
It was 70% wheat flour and 30% maize flour, with grains and protein-rich cereals like rice and beans mixed in.
What is it called when the bran and germ are removed?
The bran and germ are normally removed during refining, leaving only the endosperm; without the bran and germ, about 25% of a grain’s protein is lost, and at least seventeen key nutrients are greatly reduced.
How is bran and germ removed from wheat?
The grains are separated from other plant fragments, cleaned, and transported to a mill, where the bran, endosperm, and germ are separated. Farmers either crush the wheat with grinding stones or pass it through automated steel cylinders to separate the three elements.
What is made from durum wheat?
Although durum wheat is most commonly associated with pasta production, it is also used to make couscous, a popular North African dish, and a significant portion of durum wheat is used for bread baking, which includes flat breads as well as hearth-style bread.
Why is wheat germ removed?
Wheat germ oil contains both essential fatty acids, alpha-linoleic and linolenic, and is produced as a by-product of the wheat milling industry. The germ is removed from the endosperm during milling because of its unfavorable baking properties, as the oil is susceptible to oxidation.
Why is bran and germ removed?
The germ is rich in polyunsaturated fats (which have a tendency to oxidize and become rancid during storage), so it is removed to produce a flour with a white rather than a brown color and to eliminate fiber, which reduces nutrition. The germ is rich in polyunsaturated fats (which have a tendency to oxidize and become rancid during storage), so it is removed to improve the storage qualities of flour.
Why is bran and germ removed from rice?
White rice is milled rice that has had the husk, bran, and germ removed, which changes the flavor, texture, and appearance of the rice while also preventing spoilage, extending its storage life, and making it easier to digest. White rice is often enriched with some of the nutrients lost during processing.
What is germ and bran?
The bran is the outer shell that provides a rich source of fiber, trace minerals, phytochemicals, and B vitamins; the germ nourishes the grain and is packed with antioxidants, B vitamins, and vitamin E; and the endosperm is the inner shell that provides a rich source of fiber, trace minerals, phytochemicals, and B vitamins.
Can you eat wheat straight from the field?
Raw grains such as oats, amaranth, millet, barley, buckwheat, and kamut can be eaten after soaking and sprouting them, making them easier for your body to digest and absorb their nutrients.
How is the germ removed from corn?
The wet ilotation or degermination system, which is commonly used in the production of starch from corn, involves steeping the corn in a sulfurous acid solution, freeing the germ by rough grinding, and finally floating oiling the germ on a starch milk of suitable specific gravity.
Is durum wheat unhealthy?
Lutein is a carotenoid or nutrient found in many foods, particularly fruits and vegetables, and may have many health benefits, particularly for eye health.
What is special about durum wheat?
Despite its high protein content, durum is not a strong wheat in the sense of giving dough strength through the formation of a gluten network. Durum contains 27% extractable wet gluten, which is about 3% higher than common wheat (T. aestivum L.).
Is durum wheat healthier than whole wheat?
Whole wheat flour contains more nutrients and fiber than white flour that does not contain the bran or germ, and milled white flour is often enriched with minerals like iron to improve its nutritional value.
How much wheat germ should I eat a day?
Although there is no official daily allowance for which germ, most supplements recommend taking one tablet or tablespoon per day.
What are the benefits of eating wheat germ?
The germ contains many nutrients, including an excellent source of thiamin, as well as good sources of folate, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc, as well as protein, fiber, and some fat. Try sprinkling some on your hot or cold cereal.
How is germ removed from Rice?
Paddy separators work by taking advantage of the differences in specific gravity, buoyancy, and size between paddy and brown rice. White rice is made by removing the bran layer and the germ from paddy, which is done with abrasive or friction polishers.