Emmer wheat, also known as hulled wheat, is a tetraploid (2 n = 4 x 28 chromosomes) awned wheat with four distinct chromosomes. The domesticated types are Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum and Triticum turgiarum conv.
The wild emmer (Triticum dicoccoides Koern.) is a crop wild relative of domesticated emmer, and some taxonomists believe that all tetraploid wheats belong to one species, T. turgidum.
Wild emmer is a tetraploid wheat hybridized from two diploid wild grasses that grows wild in the Near East. It is closely related to wild einkorn (T. boeoticum) and Aegilops species.
Emmer is a hulled wheat with strong glumes (husks) that enclose the grains and a semibrittle rachis. Wild emmer wheat spikelets effectively self-cultivate by propelling themselves mechanically into soils, similar to einkorn and spelt wheats.
Emmer was collected from the wild and consumed by hunter-gatherers for thousands of years before it was domesticated. Emmer grains discovered at Ohalo II had a radiocarbon dating of 17,000 BC. Emmer is found in a large number of Neolithic sites scattered throughout the fertile crescent. Emmer and barley were the primary ingredients in ancient Egyptian bread and beer.
Emmer is grown in Armenia, Morocco, Spain (Asturias), the Carpathian Mountains on the Czech-Slovak border, Albania, Turkey, Switzerland, Germany, Greece, and Italy, where it is particularly well established and expanding.
Emmer is primarily used as a human food, though it is also used as animal feed. Ethnographic evidence from Turkey and other emmer-growing areas suggests that emmer makes good bread, and emmer has long been used as a whole grain in Tuscany’s soups.
“Online Etymology Dictionary”. Retrieved 2011-08-10. “Complex Bread Wheat Genome Cracked u2013 Nat Geo Food”. 17 July 2017. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
Ancient Mesopotamian agriculture. The oldest domesticated wheat was discovered at Abu Hureyra. Plant economy of northern Alpine lake dwellings 3500u20132400 cal. BC.
When did wheat get domesticated?
Wheat was domesticated ten thousand years ago in what is now the Middle East, when humans quickly changed the crop’s key characteristics.
Is wheat domesticated?
Wheat was one of the first crops to be domesticated in the Middle East, more than 10,000 years ago, and molecular genetics and archaeological data have allowed plausible domestication scenarios leading to modern cultivars to be reconstructed.
What was emmer used for in ancient Egypt?
Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum), also known as farro in Italy, is a low-yielding, awned wheat that was a wholesome daily staple of the ancient Egyptians and has been grown for millennia in the Middle East and North Africa. Emmer gave rise to all durum wheat between 12,000 and 9,000 years ago.
Is emmer wheat healthy?
Emmer wheat is high in niacin, a B vitamin that is good for your heart and cholesterol levels, as well as magnesium and iron. 7. Pregnant women and women who have recently given birth can benefit from emmer wheat because of its nutrient profile.
What kind of wheat is emmer?
Emmer, a tetraploid wheat with four sets of chromosomes, is a hybrid of einkorn and a type of wild grass, while spelt, a hexaploid wheat with six sets of chromosomes, is a hybrid of emmer and another wild grass. Modern wheat is also hexaploid.
How did wheat change humans?
Wheat, of course, was the first significant crop that changed the course of human history in the Old World. Our forefathers ate the bran, which was high in fiber, as well as the gluten, which was high in protein, and the fiber encouraged the growth of good gut bugs, which were required to digest the gluten.
Did corn originated in America?
Corn, also known as maize in some languages, was first cultivated in Mexico over 7,000 years ago and spread throughout North and South America. Native Americans most likely bred the first corn from wild grasses and crossed high-yielding plants to create hybrids.
Which country is the world’s leading wheat producer?
China is the world’s leading wheat producer, with 134,250 thousand tonnes produced in 2020, accounting for 20.66% of global wheat production, with the top five countries (India, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, and Canada) accounting for 63.46%.
What is the seed rate of wheat?
Wheat is a winter (rabi) crop in India. Seed rate: 100 kg/ha for medium grain varieties, 125 kg/ha for bold seeded varieties, and 125-150 kg/ha for late sown varieties is recommended.
Why is wheat healthy?
In addition to the above nutrients, enriched wheat flour may be a good source of iron, thiamine, niacin, calcium, and vitamin B6, while whole wheat may be a good source of selenium, manganese, phosphorus, copper, and folate.
Why is wheat so popular?
Wheat is grown on more land than any other commercial crop today, and it remains the most important food grain source for humans, outproducing rice, maize, and potatoes. Wheat is adapted to a wide range of moisture conditions, from xerophytic to littoral, and it continues to be the most important food grain source for humans.
Where is emmer grown?
Emmer is grown in Morocco, Spain, the Carpathian mountains on the border of the Czech and Slovak republics, Albania, Turkey, Switzerland, and Italy for its ability to produce good yields on poor soils and its resistance to fungal diseases such as stem rust, which are common in wet areas.
What is emmer in the Bible?
Emmer. Biblical texts referring to threshing sledges and mortars imply that emmer, a type of hulled wheat, was probably the majority of wheat cultivated in Bible times.
What does the word emmer mean?
The grain of emmer is an ancient tetraploid wheat (Triticum dicoccum) with spikelets containing two hard red grains that remain in the glumes after threshing and has been cultivated primarily in southwest Asia, northeast Africa, and Europe; it is also known as farro.