Hard White Wheat: Producing North Dakota’s Next Market Opportunity — Publications
Hard white wheat is the newest wheat variety to hit the market in the United States. It has a hard endosperm and white bran, just like hard red wheat, and is used in whole-wheat and high-extraction flour applications like pan breads and flatbreads.
Why does the U.S. need to expand hard white wheat production?
Hard white wheat is in demand both domestically and internationally because millers can extract more flour of the desired color and ash content from the white grain, and whole-wheat products made from white wheat have a more appealing appearance due to less pigmentation.
What quality characteristics of hard white wheat do end users require?
Customers in Asia speak of their desire for a “white DNS,” referring to Dark Northern Spring wheat varieties, and some Asian buyers also prefer wheat varieties that have a softer, spongy “mouth feel” when eaten.
What varieties of hard white wheat are available for production in North Dakota?
Many hard white wheat varieties are not well suited to growing in North Dakota, so NDSU and private companies are working to develop disease-resistant, high-yielding varieties. The following varieties have been compared to hard red spring wheat varieties in terms of agronomic performance.
In limited testing in North Dakota in 2005, it showed average to slightly below-average performance for grain yield when treated with fungicides. It was developed by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and released in 2004. It has a high protein quality and is aimed at the Asian noodle and leavened bread markets.
AC Vista, developed and released by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in 1996, had the highest yield potential of all the white wheat varieties tested in 2005 North Dakota tests, where fungicide was applied for disease control, and in regional experimental tests.
Dakota Pride Cooperative’s primary variety in 2014 was Hard Red Spring Wheat, which was developed by AgriPro and released in 2008. It has a medium protein and test weight, good yield potential, and good preharvest sprout tolerance.
The first hard white wheat variety developed by NDSU, released in 1998, is essentially a white version of Grandin, with high test weight and protein, as well as good milling and baking qualities. Kernel color is darker than other hard white varieties, which may cause issues with acceptance as white wheat by some end users.
Developed by Montana State University and released in 2001, this grain is best suited to the western parts of North Dakota and parts of Montana, and it has good milling and baking qualities.
WinterWheat was developed in 1997 by the University of Idaho and is best suited for the Asian noodle market, with low to moderate grain protein content and high yield potential. It is susceptible to leaf rust and other foliar diseases, but resistant to many common wheat diseases.
Other hard white wheat varieties will be listed in the selection guides for this year’s harvests later this year and early in 2015. Hard white winter wheat was developed by South Dakota State University in 2004 and performed poorly in state trials in North Dakota in 2005.
Where can producers obtain seed of hard white wheat varieties?
Alpine seed was the only named variety available from certified seed growers in North Dakota in 2014, and information on seed availability can be obtained from private companies such as WestBred and AgriPro, as well as information on the availability of white wheat varieties developed in Canada.
The majority of the available hard white wheat varieties were developed outside of North Dakota, so fungicide applications for foliar diseases and/or scab may be required in the more disease-prone regions.
Rain, high humidity, and cool temperatures after the grain has matured can induce sprouting in the spike, so harvesting hard white wheat before hard red spring wheat varieties is one way to reduce the chance of unnecessary exposure.
Using certified seed and avoiding planting white wheat for at least two years after a crop of a different class could harm the traditional leavened bread market.
Where can I sell white wheat?
The North Dakota Mill is buying hard white wheat from Dakota Pride Cooperative producers; check with local elevators for white wheat contracting opportunities; producers should not produce white wheat without a contract until the supply and demand for white wheat in North Dakota is well-established.
What is the future of hard white wheat?
Hard white winter wheat will most likely supply the market adequately for flatbreads and some types of Asian noodles; however, developing white wheat varieties that are resistant to sprouting will be critical for their long-term success, and a price incentive will most likely be required to stimulate hard white wheat production in the short term.
Where can I find additional information on hard white wheat production and marketing?
Hard White Winter Wheat for Kansas: Background information on the development and use of hard white winter wheat in Kansas, developed by Kansas State University Experiment Station and Extension Service in 1998. Economic Analysis of Producing White Wheat u2013 North Dakota: White Wheat Market and Strategy Analysis for North Dakota.
The authors thank William Berzonsky, former NDSU hard white/specialty spring wheat breeder, and Brian Sorenson, former director of the Northern Crops Institute, for their editorial assistance. Publication was made possible in part by a grant from the North Dakota State Board of Agricultural Research and Education.
When should I plant hard wheat?
The most common wheat cultivars for baking are hard red wheat cultivars, which come in both warm and cool season varieties.
- Winter wheat is planted in the fall and grows until early winter before going dormant
- spring wheat is planted in the spring and ripens in the middle to late summer.
What is the best month to plant wheat?
Spring wheat can be planted while the soil is still cool, so sow in late summer or early fall for an overwintered crop. Broadcast seed into cultivated soil about 3 inches (7 cm) apart and one-half inch (1 cm) deep.
What is hard white wheat used for?
While hard white wheat has the same nutritional claims as traditional red wheats, products made from white wheat are lighter in color and sweeter in taste. Hard white wheat is primarily used for yeast breads, hard rolls, and noodles.
What time of year do farmers plant wheat?
Spring wheat is planted in the spring and harvested in the summer and fall, whereas winter wheat is planted in the fall or winter and harvested in the spring and summer.
Why is growing wheat illegal?
To artificially inflate commercial wheat prices, a law was enacted in the 1930s prohibiting US citizens from growing wheat at home unless the crop was properly documented and the associated fees were paid on an annual basis (surprise surprise).
What is the easiest grain to grow?
Corn is one of the easiest grains to grow and harvest, requiring less effort than wheat or barley.
How deep do you plant wheat?
How deep should I drill wheat, barley, and oats to find moisture? The optimum seeding depth for small grains is 1.5 to 2 inches under most conditions, aiming to place the seed in a zone with plenty of moisture but shallow enough for the crop to emerge quickly.
How do you prepare soil for growing wheat?
Ploughing should be done in the evening and furrows should be left open all night to absorb dew moisture, followed by two to three ploughings with local plough and then planking.
How much is a 50 lb bag of wheat seed?
(A 50-pound sack of seed will set you back around $69.)
What is the healthiest flour to bake bread with?
5 Healthiest Flours for Every Occasion
- Coconut flour is made by grinding dried coconut meat into a soft, fine powder.
- Almond flour is made by grinding blanched almonds into a fine powder.
- Quinoa flour.
- Buckwheat flour.
- Whole wheat flour.
Which type of wheat is best?
The husk and bran are removed in many types of wheat flours, stripping them of many nutrients, dietary fibres, minerals, and vitamins. Whole wheat is better than simple wheat flour because it is a grain complete with bran, husk, and endosperm.
Is unbleached bread flour the same as unbleached flour?
Because unbleached flour and all-purpose flour have the same function, you can use them interchangeably in most baking.
Does winter wheat come back every year?
Winter wheat is typically planted in the Northern Hemisphere from September to November and harvested in the summer or early autumn the following year; however, facultative varieties can be grown as either winter or spring wheat depending on sowing time.
Do Whitetails like winter wheat?
Winter wheat is an excellent cool-season forage for white-tailed deer because it contains more than 20% crude protein and contains less than 25% acid detergent fiber, making it highly digestible.
How long does it take for wheat to grow?
It’s planted in the fall, usually between October and December, and grows over the winter to be harvested in the spring or early summer; it takes about seven to eight months to mature, and it makes a lovely golden contrast in spring gardens.